Background: #fff
Foreground: #000
PrimaryPale: #8cf
PrimaryLight: #18f
PrimaryMid: #04b
PrimaryDark: #014
SecondaryPale: #ffc
SecondaryLight: #fe8
SecondaryMid: #db4
SecondaryDark: #841
TertiaryPale: #eee
TertiaryLight: #ccc
TertiaryMid: #999
TertiaryDark: #666
Error: #f88
body {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}

a {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
a:hover {background-color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
a img {border:0;}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6 {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]]; background:transparent;}
h1 {border-bottom:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
h2,h3 {border-bottom:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}

.button {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; border-color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}
.button:active {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}

.header {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.headerShadow {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
.headerShadow a {font-weight:normal; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
.headerForeground {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.headerForeground a {font-weight:normal; color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];}

	border-left:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
	border-top:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
	border-right:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
.tabUnselected {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.tabContents {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.tabContents .button {border:0;}

#sidebar {}
#sidebarOptions input {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a {border:none;color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a:active {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}

.wizard {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.wizard h1 {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border:none;}
.wizard h2 {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border:none;}
.wizardStep {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];
	border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.wizardStep.wizardStepDone {background::[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.wizardFooter {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];}
.wizardFooter .status {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.wizard .button {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; border: 1px solid;
	border-color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]] [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.wizard .button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.wizard .button:active {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: 1px solid;
	border-color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];}

#messageArea {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#messageArea .button {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]]; border:none;}

.popupTiddler {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.popup {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; border-left:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border-top:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border-right:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; border-bottom:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.popup hr {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border-bottom:1px;}
.popup li.disabled {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.popup li a, .popup li a:visited {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
.popup li a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
.popup li a:active {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
.popupHighlight {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
.listBreak div {border-bottom:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.tiddler .defaultCommand {font-weight:bold;}

.shadow .title {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.title {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}
.subtitle {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.toolbar {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.toolbar a {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.selected .toolbar a {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.selected .toolbar a:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}

.tagging, .tagged {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; background-color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];}
.selected .tagging, .selected .tagged {background-color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.tagging .listTitle, .tagged .listTitle {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];}
.tagging .button, .tagged .button {border:none;}

.footer {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.selected .footer {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.sparkline {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]]; border:0;}
.sparktick {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];}

.error, .errorButton {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Error]];}
.warning {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.lowlight {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}

.zoomer {background:none; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border:3px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.imageLink, #displayArea .imageLink {background:transparent;}

.annotation {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}

.viewer .listTitle {list-style-type:none; margin-left:-2em;}
.viewer .button {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}
.viewer blockquote {border-left:3px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.viewer table, table.twtable {border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.viewer th, .viewer thead td, .twtable th, .twtable thead td {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.viewer td, .viewer tr, .twtable td, .twtable tr {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.viewer pre {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.viewer code {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}
.viewer hr {border:0; border-top:dashed 1px [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.highlight, .marked {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]];}

.editor input {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.editor textarea {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; width:100%;}
.editorFooter {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

#backstageArea {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
#backstageArea a {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstageArea a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; }
#backstageArea a.backstageSelTab {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#backstageButton a {background:none; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstageButton a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstagePanel {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border-color: [[ColorPalette::Background]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.backstagePanelFooter .button {border:none; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.backstagePanelFooter .button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#backstageCloak {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; opacity:0.6; filter:'alpha(opacity:60)';}
* html .tiddler {height:1%;}

body {font-size:.75em; font-family:arial,helvetica; margin:0; padding:0;}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6 {font-weight:bold; text-decoration:none;}
h1,h2,h3 {padding-bottom:1px; margin-top:1.2em;margin-bottom:0.3em;}
h4,h5,h6 {margin-top:1em;}
h1 {font-size:1.35em;}
h2 {font-size:1.25em;}
h3 {font-size:1.1em;}
h4 {font-size:1em;}
h5 {font-size:.9em;}

hr {height:1px;}

a {text-decoration:none;}

dt {font-weight:bold;}

ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}

.txtOptionInput {width:11em;}

#contentWrapper .chkOptionInput {border:0;}

.externalLink {text-decoration:underline;}

.indent {margin-left:3em;}
.outdent {margin-left:3em; text-indent:-3em;}
code.escaped {white-space:nowrap;}

.tiddlyLinkExisting {font-weight:bold;}
.tiddlyLinkNonExisting {font-style:italic;}

/* the 'a' is required for IE, otherwise it renders the whole tiddler in bold */
a.tiddlyLinkNonExisting.shadow {font-weight:bold;}

#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkExisting,
	#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkNonExisting,
	#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkNonExisting {font-weight:normal; font-style:normal;}
#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkExisting {font-weight:bold; font-style:normal;}

.header {position:relative;}
.header a:hover {background:transparent;}
.headerShadow {position:relative; padding:4.5em 0em 1em 1em; left:-1px; top:-1px;}
.headerForeground {position:absolute; padding:4.5em 0em 1em 1em; left:0px; top:0px;}

.siteTitle {font-size:3em;}
.siteSubtitle {font-size:1.2em;}

#mainMenu {position:absolute; left:0; width:10em; text-align:right; line-height:1.6em; padding:1.5em 0.5em 0.5em 0.5em; font-size:1.1em;}

#sidebar {position:absolute; right:3px; width:16em; font-size:.9em;}
#sidebarOptions {padding-top:0.3em;}
#sidebarOptions a {margin:0em 0.2em; padding:0.2em 0.3em; display:block;}
#sidebarOptions input {margin:0.4em 0.5em;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {margin-left:1em; padding:0.5em; font-size:.85em;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a {font-weight:bold; display:inline; padding:0;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel input {margin:0 0 .3em 0;}
#sidebarTabs .tabContents {width:15em; overflow:hidden;}

.wizard {padding:0.1em 1em 0em 2em;}
.wizard h1 {font-size:2em; font-weight:bold; background:none; padding:0em 0em 0em 0em; margin:0.4em 0em 0.2em 0em;}
.wizard h2 {font-size:1.2em; font-weight:bold; background:none; padding:0em 0em 0em 0em; margin:0.4em 0em 0.2em 0em;}
.wizardStep {padding:1em 1em 1em 1em;}
.wizard .button {margin:0.5em 0em 0em 0em; font-size:1.2em;}
.wizardFooter {padding:0.8em 0.4em 0.8em 0em;}
.wizardFooter .status {padding:0em 0.4em 0em 0.4em; margin-left:1em;}
.wizard .button {padding:0.1em 0.2em 0.1em 0.2em;}

#messageArea {position:fixed; top:2em; right:0em; margin:0.5em; padding:0.5em; z-index:2000; _position:absolute;}
.messageToolbar {display:block; text-align:right; padding:0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.2em;}
#messageArea a {text-decoration:underline;}

.tiddlerPopupButton {padding:0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.2em;}
.popupTiddler {position: absolute; z-index:300; padding:1em 1em 1em 1em; margin:0;}

.popup {position:absolute; z-index:300; font-size:.9em; padding:0; list-style:none; margin:0;}
.popup .popupMessage {padding:0.4em;}
.popup hr {display:block; height:1px; width:auto; padding:0; margin:0.2em 0em;}
.popup li.disabled {padding:0.4em;}
.popup li a {display:block; padding:0.4em; font-weight:normal; cursor:pointer;}
.listBreak {font-size:1px; line-height:1px;}
.listBreak div {margin:2px 0;}

.tabset {padding:1em 0em 0em 0.5em;}
.tab {margin:0em 0em 0em 0.25em; padding:2px;}
.tabContents {padding:0.5em;}
.tabContents ul, .tabContents ol {margin:0; padding:0;}
.txtMainTab .tabContents li {list-style:none;}
.tabContents li.listLink { margin-left:.75em;}

#contentWrapper {display:block;}
#splashScreen {display:none;}

#displayArea {margin:1em 17em 0em 14em;}

.toolbar {text-align:right; font-size:.9em;}

.tiddler {padding:1em 1em 0em 1em;}

.missing .viewer,.missing .title {font-style:italic;}

.title {font-size:1.6em; font-weight:bold;}

.missing .subtitle {display:none;}
.subtitle {font-size:1.1em;}

.tiddler .button {padding:0.2em 0.4em;}

.tagging {margin:0.5em 0.5em 0.5em 0; float:left; display:none;}
.isTag .tagging {display:block;}
.tagged {margin:0.5em; float:right;}
.tagging, .tagged {font-size:0.9em; padding:0.25em;}
.tagging ul, .tagged ul {list-style:none; margin:0.25em; padding:0;}
.tagClear {clear:both;}

.footer {font-size:.9em;}
.footer li {display:inline;}

.annotation {padding:0.5em; margin:0.5em;}

* html .viewer pre {width:99%; padding:0 0 1em 0;}
.viewer {line-height:1.4em; padding-top:0.5em;}
.viewer .button {margin:0em 0.25em; padding:0em 0.25em;}
.viewer blockquote {line-height:1.5em; padding-left:0.8em;margin-left:2.5em;}
.viewer ul, .viewer ol {margin-left:0.5em; padding-left:1.5em;}

.viewer table, table.twtable {border-collapse:collapse; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
.viewer th, .viewer td, .viewer tr,.viewer caption,.twtable th, .twtable td, .twtable tr,.twtable caption {padding:3px;}
table.listView {font-size:0.85em; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
table.listView th, table.listView td, table.listView tr {padding:0px 3px 0px 3px;}

.viewer pre {padding:0.5em; margin-left:0.5em; font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em; overflow:auto;}
.viewer code {font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em;}

.editor {font-size:1.1em;}
.editor input, .editor textarea {display:block; width:100%; font:inherit;}
.editorFooter {padding:0.25em 0em; font-size:.9em;}
.editorFooter .button {padding-top:0px; padding-bottom:0px;}

.fieldsetFix {border:0; padding:0; margin:1px 0px 1px 0px;}

.sparkline {line-height:1em;}
.sparktick {outline:0;}

.zoomer {font-size:1.1em; position:absolute; overflow:hidden;}
.zoomer div {padding:1em;}

* html #backstage {width:99%;}
* html #backstageArea {width:99%;}
#backstageArea {display:none; position:relative; overflow: hidden; z-index:150; padding:0.3em 0.5em 0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageToolbar {position:relative;}
#backstageArea a {font-weight:bold; margin-left:0.5em; padding:0.3em 0.5em 0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageButton {display:none; position:absolute; z-index:175; top:0em; right:0em;}
#backstageButton a {padding:0.1em 0.4em 0.1em 0.4em; margin:0.1em 0.1em 0.1em 0.1em;}
#backstage {position:relative; width:100%; z-index:50;}
#backstagePanel {display:none; z-index:100; position:absolute; margin:0em 3em 0em 3em; padding:1em 1em 1em 1em;}
.backstagePanelFooter {padding-top:0.2em; float:right;}
.backstagePanelFooter a {padding:0.2em 0.4em 0.2em 0.4em;}
#backstageCloak {display:none; z-index:20; position:absolute; width:100%; height:100px;}

.whenBackstage {display:none;}
.backstageVisible .whenBackstage {display:block;}
StyleSheet for use when a translation requires any css style changes.
This StyleSheet can be used directly by languages such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean which use a logographic writing system and need larger font sizes.

body {font-size:0.8em;}

#sidebarOptions {font-size:1.05em;}
#sidebarOptions a {font-style:normal;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {font-size:0.95em;}

.subtitle {font-size:0.8em;}

.viewer table.listView {font-size:0.95em;}

.htmlarea .toolbarHA table {border:1px solid ButtonFace; margin:0em 0em;}
@media print {
#mainMenu, #sidebar, #messageArea, .toolbar, #backstageButton {display: none ! important;}
#displayArea {margin: 1em 1em 0em 1em;}
/* Fixes a feature in Firefox where print preview displays the noscript content */
noscript {display:none;}
<div class='header' macro='gradient vert [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]'>
<div class='headerShadow'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
<div class='headerForeground'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
<div id='mainMenu' refresh='content' tiddler='MainMenu'></div>
<div id='sidebar'>
<div id='sidebarOptions' refresh='content' tiddler='SideBarOptions'></div>
<div id='sidebarTabs' refresh='content' force='true' tiddler='SideBarTabs'></div>
<div id='displayArea'>
<div id='messageArea'></div>
<div id='tiddlerDisplay'></div>
<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar closeTiddler closeOthers +editTiddler > fields syncing permalink references jump'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='subtitle'><span macro='view modifier link'></span>, <span macro='view modified date'></span> (<span macro='message views.wikified.createdPrompt'></span> <span macro='view created date'></span>)</div>
<div class='tagging' macro='tagging'></div>
<div class='tagged' macro='tags'></div>
<div class='viewer' macro='view text wikified'></div>
<div class='tagClear'></div>
<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar +saveTiddler -cancelTiddler deleteTiddler'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit title'></div>
<div macro='annotations'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit text'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit tags'></div><div class='editorFooter'><span macro='message views.editor.tagPrompt'></span><span macro='tagChooser'></span></div>
To get started with this blank TiddlyWiki, you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
* SiteTitle & SiteSubtitle: The title and subtitle of the site, as shown above (after saving, they will also appear in the browser title bar)
* MainMenu: The menu (usually on the left)
* DefaultTiddlers: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
These InterfaceOptions for customising TiddlyWiki are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a WikiWord (eg JoeBloggs)

<<option txtUserName>>
<<option chkSaveBackups>> SaveBackups
<<option chkAutoSave>> AutoSave
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> RegExpSearch
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> CaseSensitiveSearch
<<option chkAnimate>> EnableAnimations

Also see AdvancedOptions
>//Jane likes chocolate, coffee'','' and cheesecake.//

>//Do you prefer walking, jogging'','' or running?//

Do you notice the [[comma|Comma]] used before the conjunction in the above sentences? That is the ''serial comma''.

Use a serial comma with lists of three or more items, unless you are prepared to logically defend why you shouldn't use one. In many cases, it helps aid comprehension a lot… and it really doesn't take that much more effort to add that extra comma in, does it? For particularly long or confusing lists, even a serial comma might not help. You might find yourself needing something like the [[semicolon|Semicolon]] to help you out.
''//Etc.//'' is usually redundant (and lazy).

If you are using introductory expressions for lists&#8212;for example, //like//, //including//, //not limited to//, or //such as//&#8212;do not use "etc." at the end of your sentence. Etc. already means "more of the same," so using both the terms is redundant. Correct the problem by adding an "and" or an "or" before the last term.

Here's an example (emphasis added):

> Therefore, to decrease their dependency on soil, people should adopt other income generating activities like rearing domestic animals ''//such as//'' milch cows, goats, sheep, poultry, etc and also they should adopt different handicraft work ''//like//'' preparation of incense sticks, candles, etc.

This sentence suffers not only because of this "and etc." problem, but also because there are lists within lists. The author is introducing two options (rearing domestic animals and practicing handicraft work) and for each of these two options, a few examples. 

Here's a revised version which tries to retain the author's original structure (I'm assuming that the author meant to select one of those two options&#8212;not //both// of them as is implied in the original version&#8212;hence my use of "or" in my revisions):

> Therefore, to decrease their dependency on soil, people should adopt other income generating activities like rearing domestic animals such as milch cows, goats, sheep, and poultry or they should adopt different handicraft work like making incense sticks and candles.

Yet another alternative might be:

> Rearing domestic animals (milch cows, goats, sheep, poultry) or making handicrafts (candles, incense sticks) are examples of income generating activities which can decrease dependency on soil.

Admittedly, I don't like either of these sentences very much, but at least our items are more clearly defined now. The second alternative may or may not make sense depending on the context within the sentence. Additionally, the omission of the "such as" or "like" from the sentence might imply that these are the only alternatives; the use of "are examples" addresses this to a certain extent.

This highlights another caution against "etc." Using "etc." can also appear a little lazy to your readers&#8212;especially if you are talking about something specialized in which you are an expert. Even if the "other things" may be common for you, your readers may not be familiar with everything you're writing about.
That's me.
[[Snippy Writing Tips?]]
<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar +saveTiddler -cancelTiddler deleteTiddler'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit title'></div>
<div macro='annotations'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit text'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit tags'></div><div class='editorFooter'><span macro='message views.editor.tagPrompt'></span><span macro='tagChooser'></span></div>
There are different forms of editing and different reasons to edit. These tips should help you in the process of editing by identifying some of the things you should try and look for. You should note that not all of these editing tips are //required//, nor do they necessarily identify things which are exactly //wrong//. For example, when editing, we usually try to eliminate repetition in our work; however, sometimes repetition is not redundant&#8212;it's a reinforcing tool. At that point, you are leaving the realm of [[grammar|Grammar]] and getting into the realms of [[style|Style]] and [[usage|Usage]]&#8212;two other very useful tools for [[writing|Writing]].

Do I have any general advice about editing? 

Well, one of the most common reasons to edit is to help facilitate understanding. Think of it as trying to explain something complex to someone. We might try different ways of saying things.... We might pause to give the other person a chance to reflect on what's been said.... We might drop out certain parts entirely, or add things for clarification.... Similarly, a thoughtfully placed [[comma|Comma]], a strategic [[document structure|Structuring your documents]], or a realistic practical [[example or story|Storytelling]] can work wonders in improving a document's readability. Unfortunately, it's not always easy for us to [[see when something might be confusing|Trying to see things differently]], especially if we are writing under strict deadlines.
An ''//ellipsis//''&#8212;those dots that we sometimes need to use to show the omission of something or to show that a thought has been cut short&#8212;is three dots. No more, no less. When an ellipsis occurs at the end of a sentence, that fourth dot is the period indicating the end of the sentence. Usually, we do not use an ellipsis at the beginning of a sentence unless it is //very// important to make it clear that we aren't starting a quote or an idea from the beginning.

[[Spacing|Spacing with punctuation]] is pretty straightforward when using an ellipsis. Generally, if an ellipsis is used at the end of a sentence, there is no space before it. If an ellipsis is used to show omission of a part of a quotation or something similar, leave a space before and after the ellipsis. 

Note: //This isn't exactly thorough as far as proper usage is concerned, but it is probably enough for most situations. [[Look it up|Why don't people use reference materials when they are available?]] if you are really interested in the finer points.//
''//Extra Words//'' is about ... umm ... extra words. 

In general, entries with the //Extra Words// tag feature [[editing|Editing Points]] for brevity in some way or another.

In many ways, this tag was inspired by Strunk's advice in //The Elements of Style// to //omit needless words//. He wrote:

> Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts. This requires not that the writer make all sentences short, or avoid all detail and treat subjects only in outline, but that every word tell.

It seems like Strunk's closing statement was prophetic: for the sake of brevity, I find too many people writing in [[bullet-points|Gimme some more bullets for my "lazy writer" gun....]] in my classes. Anyway, don't mistake my focus on brevity as promoting bullet-point writing.
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I've never been a big fan of bullet-points in writing, and two things have made my contempt for them grow stronger:
* ~PowerPoint
* Correcting student essays with too many bullet-points

Sorry. I couldn't resist that one. But it's true! Those two things really have made me like bulleted lists even less than I already did.

My main criticism of this style of writing is what it seems to have done to our overall ability to communicate. In this world of fast-moving efficient information flow, many people have succumbed to the power of "getting to the //point//." But in the process, it seems like their thinking has been reduced to the same bullets they end up writing.

To give you an example of what I mean, I recently finished grading some assignments. In them, one paper used many bullet-points throughout, so I sat down with the student and asked him to give me some alternatives or to explain the points in more detail. The student&#8212;and I'm not exaggerating here&#8212;simply restated the points to me as his explanation!

The conversation went something like this:

> So, can you explain to me what you mean here when you write "Ecological, economic, and socio-political crisis due to excessive and unbalanced use of additional inputs"?
>> That means that the people are having ecologic, economic, and socio-political crisis due to excessive and unbalanced use of additional inputs.
> Can you be more specific or descriptive?
>> [Blank stare]
> What do you mean by "additional inputs"?
>> [Another blank stare]
> [I pause to give the student time to think]
>> What I mean is that by using these additional inputs, they are having an ecological, economic, and socio-political crisis.

You get the idea. The same thing happens when they finally get a chance to present their work in public. Same thing. ~PowerPoint. Bulleted lists galore. Straight reading from the screen the first time ... and shuffling the words around the second time.

Please ... I beg you to unload your bullets now and give me some quality writing.... Let's stop the hate.... Share the love for well-crafted [[sentences|The sentence...]] and [[paragraphs|The paragraph...]]....
I am honestly sometimes sorry for anyone who has to learn English as a second language because there are so many rules and so many exceptions. On the other hand, unlike some other languages, English is very extensively documented, so it you are ever confused, you have lots of references to turn to to help you find your answers. In this section, I've included a mixture of "broader" grammatical concepts as well as some "finer" points on grammar. Of course, even after those are considered, you will also need to think about [[style|Style]] and [[usage|Usage]].

So, let the fun begin!
Just because you write that something is //important//, that doesn't automatically make that point important.

>The important objectives of this study were ....
Does that mean that there are also unimportant objectives that you will mention later (or objectives that you plan to leave out entirely)?

Writers also sometimes enjoy saying that "It is //crucial// to note ..." or "It is //important// to fully understand ..." not because the item really is crucial or important, but that they have seen it done so many times in academic writing that they think it //sounds// more professional. Hmm....

On a related note, random [[capitalization|Capitalization]] of words doesn't really add importance to words either. More often, it's indicative of sloppy [[editing|Editing Points]].
Slashes (/) and parentheses can be useful [[punctuation marks|Punctuation]], but many people use them ineffectively, incorrectly, or confusingly.

>The third objective of this study is to identify the important factor/cause of…. //Are you looking at factors ''and'' causes? Factors ''or'' causes? Something else?//

>These jobs are undertaken in production units (enterprises)…. //Are production units and enterprises synonymous? If these are synonymous, be a nice decisive writer and pick one for the reader&#8212;don't leave the task to the reader.//

Also, even if it is tempting to [[use random spacing around these punctuation marks|Spacing with punctuation]]&#8212;like leaving a space after a slash or leaving no space before parentheses (like I did in the title of this entry)&#8212;//''don't!''// Learn what's right and use it.
For many papers, the //process// isn't nearly as important as the things you found out. So, for example, don't simply say that you conducted a [[literature review|Literature reviews]] to help you clarify your topic. Instead, tell the reader //what you found out// from conducting the literature. That may sound obvious, but I've read a surprising number of papers where the author seemed to think that simply a statement that "a literature review was conducted" is enough to justify their research.

While the goal of expressing such statements may be to strengthen or justify your work, unless you reinforce these process statements, they can actually make your writing seem less significant and show the reader a lack of commitment to a given topic.

In some [[different types of writing|Types of writing]] detailed process notes are important, but even then, it should be carefully organized and the reason for including these notes should be carefully identified.
[[Snippy Writing Tips?]]
Look out for [[fragments|Sentence fragments]] and [[run-on sentences|Run-on sentences]]. Fragments can sometimes be used effectively for emphasis. Sometimes^^<html><a href="#runaway1" style="color:red">*</a></html>^^. Run-on sentences should be broken into several sentences or should use more specialized [[punctuation|Punctuation]] (like the [[semicolon|Semicolon]], [[colon|Colon]], [[em-dashes|Dashes]], or [[parentheses|Parentheses]]) which will help make the sentence easier to understand and [[grammatically|Grammar]] correct.

<html><a name="runaway1" style="color:red">*</a></html> //Actually, this "Sometimes" isn't really a fragment&#8212;it is called an [[elliptical expression|Elliptical expressions]] and it actually represents a complete condensed statement.//
As mentioned [[in the beginning|Snippy Writing Tips?]], the inspiration for this comes mostly from all the editing work that comes my way both from students and colleagues^^<html><a href="#inspire1" style="color:red">*</a></html>^^. But in general, I'm interested in the English language&#8212;so much so that I often find myself browsing the English language reference sections of bookstores quite frequently. 

While I have not (yet) taken anything directly from the books listed in the references below, they have been an incredible source of information and inspiration for me in writing this. Some of these books disagree with each other (for example, on things like [[using a serial comma|(The welcome) attack of the serial comma!]])&#8212;and to me, that's one of the things that makes reading these types of books sort of fun for me....

!References!^^<html><a href="#inspire2" style="color:red">**</a></html>^^
American Psychological Association. (2001). //Publication manual of the American Psychological Association// (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

King, G. (2003). //Collins good writing guide//. Glasgow: ~HarperCollins Publishers.

Sabin, W. A. (2005). //The Gregg reference manual: A manual of style, grammar, usage, and formatting; University of Phoenix custom edition// (10th ed.). New York: ~McGraw-Hill.

Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (2005). //The elements of style; Illustrated by Maria Kalman//. New York: Penguin Press.

Venolia, J. (2000). //Rewrite right!//. New Delhi: Alchemy.

<html><a name="inspire1" style="color:red">*</a></html> //I may occasionally use some real-world examples from my experiences. The purpose of using actual student and colleague work isn't to make students feel bad or ashamed about their work (although sometimes, the sloppy nature of the work submitted can be quite shameful!). The purpose is to provide a realistic illustration of student writing. Hopefully, we can learn something from these illustrations in the process.//

<html><a name="inspire2" style="color:red">**</a></html> //So, you want to know how to [[cite information correctly|Citing references (so someone doesn't kick you out of school for stealing)]]? Even if you don't, you should learn. Your conscience will reward you.//
Run-on sentences are no fun. Not for the writer, and ''certainly'' not for the reader. They are not fun for the writer because it means they've hit a stumbling block with punctuation. They are not fun for readers because it takes them forever to figure out what the writer is trying to say.

Let me give you an example.

> The farmers from the command area have a water users' association which has 150 members with them after performing some meetings they all come to the conclusion that each land holder at the time of enrolling as a member and would be considered as one family and each family would receive water to irrigate one hectare of land and it was also decided that 15% of the available water would be allocated to land less women in the village.

OK. So what's going on there? First, I think it is clear that the author simply forgot a period after "150 members with them." Minor mistake, but it should have been caught in a final reading before submission for a grade. Second, "enrolling as a member and would be" simply has an extra and; removing that "and" would make the sentence more readable, but still not good. Third, there are no [[commas|Comma]] to help the reader with pauses. Fourth, there are some obvious [[grammar|Grammar]] mistakes which make the writing awkward.

Let's try an edited version.

> Farmers in the command area have formed a 150-member water users' association. This association has agreed that (1) each land holder enrolled as a member will be considered as one family, (2) each family will receive one hectare of land, and (3) 15% of the available water will be allocated to landless women in the village.

Still not beautiful and [[stylish|Style]], but at least now we don't have the problem of miscommunication. Also, we've reduced the number of words the reader has to wade through by about 30% (from 79 words in the original to 56 in the revised version)&#8212;trust me, your readers will thank you for that! For the agreements, I decided to itemize the list to help assist the reader; this is entirely optional.

//See also: [[Sentence fragments]]//
I don't like. Fragments they make things. Hard to read and understand. 

Fragments occur when a group of words is incorrectly treated as a sentence. Often, they are formed from two clauses or phrases which should have been combined as a complete sentence. 

For example, the following is a sentence in some student work I was editing:

> If government bodies working pattern and their policies are very transparent to the public and other organizations.

Huh? First, there are some obvious mistakes, but where's the rest? When I see an "if," I usually expect a "then" or something similar to follow. 

Well, here was the next sentence:

> It creating a platform to revise and rethinking about their activities, also it giving the information like, how much money they spent for a specific activity, what it their objective by this program, level of these target achievement, feedback system but voluntary organizations activities are not too much transparent to others.

Wait. Don't pull your hair out yet. We can work this out with a bit of patience, but we need to figure out what exactly we need to work out. At the very minimum, we need to fix:
* The initial sentence fragment.
* The lack of [[parallelism|Parallelism]].
* The [[run-on sentence|Run-on sentences]] that will help fix the sentence fragment.

I ''//think//'' that the author's message is still evident in the following edited version:

> Government activities should be transparent to the public and other organizations, enabling a platform for public review of government activities. This transparency should include policy decisions, budgetary information, objectives and achievements for different activities, and a forum for feedback. Similar standards should be adopted by voluntary organizations.

Not only is the sentence clearer, it is also more economical: we've managed to cut 21 words out of the original 68 words. Do you see your readers smiling now?
[[Random Thoughts on Writing Inspired by Things I've Read|References and Inspiration]]
[[Snippy Writing Tips|Snippy Writing Tips?]]
So, what exactly are //Snippy Writing Tips//?

Basically, during my time teaching English&#8212;especially with [[my recent experiences in India|]]&#8212;I've come across a lot of common mistakes which could be avoided with a little bit more care when writing. In a haphazard way (contradicting things I usually teach in my classes) [[I've been collecting some of these mistakes and writing tips|References and Inspiration]] to help my students avoid or correct them. Thus, to a certain extent, the content here might be a little bit heavy on ''//Indianisms//'', but I think the basic message might be applicable to others too.

I thought I would use this electronic format^^<html><a href="#snippy1" style="color:red">*</a></html>^^ because it's cross-platform and because I thought people would be able to either simply search or simply browse randomly through my little random snips....

!How to get started!
One way is to simply try a search term&#8212;but that won't always be productive. You can also use the "tags" option (see the area on the right where there's something saying //Timeline//, //All//, //Tags//, and //More//?) and pick a tag to get started. I've also tried to cross link these as much as possible and to put links within each entry to get you started. In general, though, I expect this to be used in a very ''non-linear''^^<html><a href="#snippy1" style="color:red">*</a></html>^^ way&#8212;not at all like reading a book.

Some of the broader "tags" to get you started are [[writing|Writing]], [[grammar|Grammar]], and [[style|Style]]. Clicking on those links will list the articles which use those tags. If that's not enough, here is an alphabetical list of all the tags used in this document:
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<html><a name="snippy1" style="color:red">*</a></html> //By the way, the tool used to make this is called [[TiddlyWiki|]]. Basically, it is a "single page" wiki. From the ~TiddlyWiki site, you can download an "empty" wiki and use it as&#8212;as the creators call it&#8212;a non-linear notebook. The syntax is pretty easy to learn, and updating your website is simply re-uploading your new single file. Since the file itself is all text, it will take a lot to make a large file, but at 250kb for the empty file, it's already a little bit big to start with. Still, it's fun, and it seems to be perfect for what I'm trying to do.//
Some people claim that they aren't following the rules of [[grammar|Grammar]] because they want to have a "style" of their own. I don't always believe them. Upon investigation, you'll probably find that most of them don't actually //know// the rules. And as my grandfather used to remind me, "You can't break the rules unless you know what the rules are in the first place."

Besides, breaking rules is not what ''//style//'' is about anyway. You can think of //style// as a way of injecting your voice into your work&#8212;a voice that is mostly correct, and a voice that takes the rules of others and makes them your own. You can also think of //style// as relating to a specific context&#8212;your writing style for an academic assignment will very likely be different from your writing style in an email.

For some people, style comes effortlessly. I can't say why with certainty, but there are several factors which may contribute including the amount they read, the amount they write, their attention to detail, or even their familiarity with the rules of grammar. But, as a general rule, I would say that you should not worry about style unless you have a good grasp of the basics of grammar.
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Ask many people who write often what one of the most important parts of the writing process is and chances are that many of them will say rewriting. Equally important is making sure you have enough time to write. By this I mean, if you know your project's due date in advance, get your first draft done as early as possible. After that, try not to work on your draft for a week (if you have the time) before revising it. This week of "separation" may give you a new, fresh pair of eyes with which you can look at your writing, and may help you to see what your writing might look like to someone reading it for the first time.

You can, of course, also try to find a peer willing to provide their firsthand critique of your work&#8212;just be sure to remember to return the favor if asked!
What exactly is meant by ''//usage//''? Books on usage often have things like lists of commonly misused words. And to a certain extent, that's all it comes down to: using the right words at the right time.

As an example, I was recently editing a document which referred to a "biannual" event. This caused me to take notice. Was this event actually //twice a year//? Or was it actually //once every two years//, as I had been told when I was given the assignment. It turned out that it was the latter, in which case the correct term should have been ''//biennial//''. Some books on usage would probably recommend not using //biannual// at all because of this possible mistake; instead, you can use //semiannual// to convey twice a year (and perhaps //every other year// instead of //biennial//).

//Usage// changes with the language. For example, when //The Elements of Style// was originally written, there was no need to consider treatment of common terms for electronic mail. Should it be //email//? //E-mail//? //eMail//? Even today, I don't think there is a straight answer. So, in such a situation, what should you do? My recommendation would be to pick one form and stick with it. In this particular case, I would recommend using ''//email//''&#8212;only because people are lazy and I am almost sure that in the long run, most of them would be too lazy to bother with putting that dash in there....
I don't think of myself as a fantastic writer or editor, but true to my Virgo roots, I can be a little too focused on details and organization. This can come in different forms and this part of my personality may not always be outwardly evident. For example, anyone who has seen my desk would attest to the messy disorganized stacks of papers, books, CDs, and pens. But anyone who has spent time with my computer would come to realize things like my picky fixation with naming conventions for files and folders&#8212;and my uncluttered computer desktop.

Anyway, somewhere along the line, this sort of meticulousness started to make its way into my writing and editing too. To help me better organize my thoughts, I also invested in several [[reference books|References and Inspiration]] which&#8212;besides being good bathroom reading&#8212;have made a permanent spot for themselves amongst the mess on my desk. 

And I use these books all the time. Really.

It's self-defense, actually. If someone gives me something to edit and I give it back totally red (it happens all the time) I had better be able to defend my decisions.

I've actually heard complaints that it is inconvenient to interrupt the writing process and look something up, or that there are so many reference books to pick from and they all say different things, or even that people don't really care about this sort of precision in writing. I can't tell you how much these excuses sadden me.... 

True, when the writing process is interrupted, it can be difficult to get back into the swing of things; but when you learn to use these reference materials, the interruptions are so minor that I'd say they are negligible. Remember the first time you had to look something up in the [[dictionary|Get a good dictionary and learn how to use it]]? See how much easier it is now?

True, selecting a good reference book can be tricky, and they do often include contradictory advice; but a good reference book will explain its advice, and based on that advice, you can evaluate whether or not the advice applies to your situation. Besides, I've included my [[personal favorites|References and Inspiration]] here to help you get started in finding favorites of your own, so you really have no excuse.

But the third excuse&#8212;that people don't care for this sort of precision in writing&#8212;is just plain lazy and really not true. Good writing truly stands out, and the ability to craft a good piece of writing in a short time period is a valuable skill. Also, if you're asking someone to help edit your work or give you feedback on your work, I can guarantee you that they would appreciate it if you were somewhat meticulous in the writing process to begin with. No editor I know feels comfortable (or ethical) completely rewriting someone else's work....
Writing is ''//fun//''. And it should be fun for people (remember&#8212;you're a person too) to read the things you've written. Hopefully, these tips will both help you to write more easily and help make your writing more "accessible" to others.

Use the links in the "tagging" box to the left to read different topics tagged as "writing."